Apache is an open source Web server that is distributed free.
Apache runs on Unix-based operating systems (including Linux and Solaris)
and Windows 95/98/NT. Apache was originally based on the NCSA server,
but is now an independent product, supported by the nonprofit Apache
A browser is a software application that lets you access information
on the Internet. Browsers can read HTML and send HTTP or FTP requests
for services on the Internet. Browsers are usually associated with the
World Wide Web portion of the Internet.
CGI, or the common gateway interface, provides a standardized
method for Web servers to send a user request to an application and
to receive information back for the user. For example, when you click
on a URL link, the Web server sends the requested page to you. CGI is
part of the HTTP protocol. CGI works in many different languages, and
across several different platforms.
A client is a company or individual requesting services from an Internet
presence provider. A client is a customer of a Web hosting company,
or a user of Internet services. In hardware terminology, a client is
a computer system or a software package that requests services or information
from another application that resides across the network. Think of the
client as your PC or workstation, through which you access programs
and data across a network or the Internet, usually on a server. In very
simple terms, a client is a user.
DB WebAdmin is a web-based administration tool that allows
to manage a whole MySQL server as well as a single database.
DNS, short for Domain Name System, is a distributed database
that maps names and IP addresses for computers using the Internet. DNS
is a standardized system that identifies domain name servers.
A domain is a virtual address on the Internet for any organization
or entity. Technically, a domain is a group of networked computers (servers)
that represent an organization and provide network services. However,
several domains could reside on one server, in dedicated space provided
by a Web hosting service. To the Internet user, a domain appears as
space on one server, regardless of the implementation. Domains are identified
by their familiar Internet URL (uniform resource locator) addresses.
For example, www.sw-soft.com is the name of the domain where SWsoft
information resides on its servers. Syntactically, a domain name is
a string of names or words separated by periods. For example, a domain
name such as: hello.house.neighborhood.com includes the names of:
the host: hello
the subdomain: house
the domain: neighborhood
the organization type: com
Some top-level domain names:
arpa: ARPAnet (a Defense Department communications system that established
com: Commercial, for-profit organizations and businesses
edu: Educational institutions
gov: Government organizations
int: International organizations
mil: U. S.-based military
net: Internet access providers
org: Non-profit organizations
aero: Air-transport industry
name: For registration by individuals
pro: Accountants, lawyers, physicians, and other professionals
2-alphabetic characters: the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs),
such as, for instance .uk for United Kingdom.
FTP, or File Transfer Protocol, is a method used to transfer files to
(upload) and from (download) a remote server. You can use the FTP command
Copy a file from the Internet to your PC
Move a file from your PC up to the Internet
Rename an existing file
Delete a file
Update an existing file with more recent data
A gateway is a combination of hardware and software allowing
dissimilar systems to communicate by filtering data through standardized
protocols. Think of a gateway as a translator that allows your PC to
talk with other computers on the network.
In a network, a host is usually a computer that stores software
applications and data that may be accessed or retrieved by other users.
But a host can be any addressable device on the network, not just a
computer. The host provides services to other computers or users. An
Internet Service Provider may also be referred to as a Web hosting company.
HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is a standardized language
for presenting information, graphics, and multimedia on the World Wide
Web. HTML consists of hundreds of codes, tags, and symbols that define
the type of information and how it should be displayed in a browser.
HTML is universally understood on a wide variety of platforms.
HTTP, or HyperText Transfer Protocol, is a standard for sharing
World Wide Web files. HTTP lets you communicate across the Internet
by carrying messages from your browser to a server.
IMAP, or Internet Message Access Protocol, is a method for
receiving e-mail messages from other Internet users on your local server.
IMAP lets you see message headers before choosing and viewing the entire
text of mail messages. You can selectively retrieve mail messages with
IMAP. Compare IMAP to the POP and SMTP mail protocols.
An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is an internal number
that identifies a host on the Internet or a network. IP numbers are
invisible to end users, replaced in your user interface by the more
familiar domain names and URLs.
IP address pool is the range of available IP addresses.
Mail autoresponders are automatic replies to email sent to
a particular mail name. Autoresponders can include both a text message
and attached files. This mail function is often used on mail accounts
for individuals who are away for a certain period of time, or are unable
to check their mail for any number of reasons.
Mail groups are used for sending e-mail to a group of people
through one address rather than to each individual address. Mail groups
save you time and effort in reaching several people at once; you only
have to create one e-mail message to the group, rather than several
identical messages to everyone.
Mailman is software to help manage email discussion lists,
much like Majordomo and SmartList. Unlike most similar products, Mailman
gives each mailing list a web page, and allows users to subscribe, unsubscribe,
etc. over the web. Even the list manager can administer his or her list
entirely from the web. Mailman also integrates most things people want
to do with mailing lists, including archiving, mail-to-news gateways,
integrated bounce handling, spam prevention, email-based admin commands,
direct SMTP delivery (with fast bulk mailing), support for virtual domains,
and more. Mailman runs on most Un*x-like systems, is compatible with
most web servers and browsers, and most SMTP servers.
Mail redirects are used to forward or redirect email from one POP3 mailbox
to another email address. By creating an email redirect or alias, messages
are sent to a different email box without the sender needing to know
the new address. Email can be redirected to an address outside the domain.
SQL is a Structured Query Language that was created as a standardized
method of defining, manipulating, and searching data in a database.
It is currently the most commonly used database language. My SQL is
a fast, easy-to-use, multi-user SQL database server in a standard client/server
environment. MySQL handles graphics as well as text. For more information,
A network is a system of interconnected computers and peripheral
devices (such as printers).
Data that is transported across the Internet is divided into
small, manageable units called packets. Data packets can be sent more
quickly and efficiently across a network than the full stream of data
in a message or file.
Perl is an interpreted high-level programming language. Perl
is very popular among System Administrators who use it for a vast number
of automation tasks. Many CGI programs are written in Perl.
PHP (originally meaning Personal Home Page) is a server-based
HTML embedded scripting language that runs on multiple platforms, primarily
on Linux servers. PHP accesses and manipulates data in a MySQL database,
and helps you create dynamic Web pages. You write HTML and embed code
in the HTML that performs a specific function. The embedded code is
the PHP portion of the script, identified in the HTML by special start
and stop tags. A PHP file has an extension of .php or .php3 or phtml.
that is executed on the client system. For more information, visit http://www.php3.org.
POP3, or Post Office Protocol Version 3, is a method used to
receive electronic mail across the Internet, accommodating different
mail software packages and systems. POP3 receives and holds all your
e-mail on a server. You can then download all your messages when you
connect to the mail server; you cannot selectively retrieve messages.
Compare POP to the IMAP mail protocol.
PostgreSQL is an open source database system, that began as
an enhancement to the POSTGRES research prototype DBMS. Where POSTGRES
used the PostQuel query language, PostgreSQL uses a subset of SQL.
A directory is an organized collection of files and subdirectory
folders on a computer. A protected directory is one that cannot be accessed
by all public users; you must have access privileges to read information
in a protected directory.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language. You
can write web-based applications in Python that will run many times
faster than traditional CGI and will have access to advanced features
such as ability to retain database connections and other data between
hits and access to Apache internals.
Qmail is a secure and highly reliable e-mail message handling system.
It replaces the sendmail daemon on Unix and Linux systems. Qmail is
fast and uses little memory. Users can create their own mail lists,
and system administration is minimal. Qmail uses the Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP) for message exchange with other systems.
Rebooting simply means restarting a computer. You should not
reboot a server that has users accessing it until you have informed
the users that the server must be shut down temporarily. Sometimes,
an emergency necessitates rebooting a server immediately, but it is
not a recommended practice.
Secure HTTP (S-HTTP or HTTPS) is an encryption method uses
to protect documents on the World Wide Web. An alternative to S-HTTP
is an SSL certificate (or Secure Socket Layer) that secures an entire
session, not just a document or a file. S-HTTP supports several different
message encryption formats, and works with any communication between
clients and servers.
There are several different ways to control access to a computer
or network, to protect proprietary data, and to maintain privacy. Security
measures can be defined at several different levels (at the server level,
on a directory, for an individual file, etc.) for optimum protection.
A server is a computer system (a combination of hardware and
software) that runs programs, stores files, directs traffic, and controls
communications on a network or the Internet. Clients (also called users
or workstations) access a server for specific information and services.
An IP address that can be used for hosting by several clients.
In Plesk, this term refers to a set of directories and files
that get copied into a newly created virtual host directory structure
at the time the virtual host is created. It may be used to have a set
of CGI scripts included with every account created in Plesk. It is very
useful if you are looking to have a more informative, customized welcoming
index.html page, and it is also helpful if you have anything else that
needs to be included by default within the directories of the virtual
SMTP, or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, is a standard for transmitting
mail messages across different computers on a TCP/IP network. SMTP can
only be used when both the mail sender and receiver are ready. If the
destination PC is not ready, a 'post office' must temporarily store
the mail. In that case, a post office protocol such as IMAP or POP is
used to retrieve the mail.
SSI stands for 'server-side includes', a type of HTML comment
that directs the webserver to dynamically generate data for the Web
page whenever information is requested. SSIs can also be used to execute
programs and insert the results; therefore they represent a powerful
tool for web developers.
SSL stands for Secure Socket Layer, and is a set of rules used
for exchanging information between two computer devices using a public
encryption system. SSL establishes secure communications between servers
and clients. SSL provides a safe and authenticated method of handling
e-commerce transactions. Only authorized users can access and read an
SSL-encrypted data stream. An alternative to SSL is Secure HTTP (S-HTTP),
used to encrypt World Wide Web documents (rather than securing an entire
session, as does SSL).
An SSL certificate is an electronic key that encrypts transmissions
between two computers on a public network, providing privacy and security
to the session. Think of an SSL certificate as an electronic ID card
for an individual or a computer service. An SSL certificate confirms
that a message that you receive actually did come from the person identified.
The certificate key is issued by a third party. SSL certificates are
used for secure e-commerce communications, protecting information such
as credit card numbers and personal data. You can generate an SSL certificate
with a utility such as SSLeay. Then, submit it to a certificate authority
such as GeoTrust, Inc (www.geotrust.com).
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and is the primary
data transport protocol on the Internet. TCP transmissions are fast,
reliable, and full-duplexed.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, commonly known
as TCP/IP, is a data transmission protocol that was developed by ARPA,
the Advanced Research Projects Agency. ARPA is the founding organization
of the Internet.
Telnet is a method of accessing another remote computer. You
can only access the other computer if you have permission to do so.
Telnet differs from other protocols that simply request information
from a host computer, because it actually logs you on to the remote
computer as a user.
Tomcat is a server solution based on the Java Platform that
supports the Servlet and JSP specifications. Managed by the Apache Jakarta
Project, it is developed in an open and participatory environment.
A URL is a Uniform Resource Locator used to identify an organization
or domain on the Internet. URLs are standardized names that are typically
found on the World Wide Web portion of the Internet. URL addresses identify
domains on the network. Read about Domains for more detail.
Simply put, a user is a client. In hardware terminology, a
client is the PC that you use to access information from other computers
(usually servers) on the Internet or network.
WebMail is a Web based interface to Unix system mailboxes.
It allows a user to access and administer his IMAP/POP3 mailbox via
the world wide web.
A web user is a user account within Apache that is used to
define locations for personalized web pages with individual FTP access.
A workstation is a user or client that accesses information
from other computers (usually servers) on a network.